Using the articles you have read for this module, write a 500-word essay on what you believe to be the greater threat to the nation—cyber-crime directed against individuals or terrorist cyber-attacks on national institutions. Provide your opinion, supported by readings, on whether the United States is active enough in countering these threats.
Alexander, Keith B, Emily Goldman, and Michael Warner. “Defending America in Cyberspace.” National Interest. 128 (2013): 18-24.
Filshtinskiy, Stas. “Cybercrime, Cyberweapons, Cyber Wars: Is There Too Much of it in the Air?” Communications of the ACM. 56.6 (2013): 28-30.
Documentation systems can be very complex—involving elaborate footnotes at the bottom of each page—or simple. For this course a simple documentation system will suffice.
The two main systems of documentation used in American scholarship are the MLA (Modern Language Association) system, used in most humanities areas, and the APA (American Psychological Association) system, used in most social and behavioral sciences. They differ a little in typography. Some of the science areas also have specialized systems. The examples given in this document are inMLA style, although you may choose to useAPA style if you wish. On the important issues of when and where to document, all the systems agree.
Here are the rules:
Direct (word-for-word) quotations from sources must be placed in quotation marks. If the quotation is very long (three lines or more), start it on a new line, indented from both left and right margins, and single spaced; quotation marks should not be used.
Follow every quotation with a note in parentheses that, for print sources (whether hard copy or electronic copy), gives the last name of the author and the page number. For example: (Smith 142). If there is no author, use a short form of the title of the article, journal, or book.
For sources obtained from a Web page, cite a short form of the author or article, as for print sources. No page number is needed. If you have only a URL, cite a short form with sufficient detail to identify it from your reference list. For example: (osha.gov). The full URL and retrieval date will still be needed in the reference list, as explained below.
A similar note should follow all indirect or paraphrased quotations, even though you do not use quotation marks. Your wording should clearly indicate what material is from the source.
At the end of the paper, a bibliography (list of references or works cited) should list all the sources used in the paper.
The entries of print sources are listed in alphabetical order by author (last name, first name) and include the title of the article (in quotes), the title of the book or journal (in italics), the publisher of the book, and the date of publication.
The entries for Web page sources are listed in alphabetical order by author (last name, first name)—if known—or the title of the Web page—if the author is unknown—followed by an indication of whether the site is a home page, online posting, etc.; name of any institution or organization sponsoring or associated with the Web site; followed by the date when you accessed the site; and ending with the URL of the source in angle brackets. For example:
“U.S. Department of Labor’s OSHA Forms Alliance to Reduce Injuries and Illnesses in Maritime Industry.” Region 4 News Release: 09-553-ATL (130). U.S Department of Labor. January 22, 2013. <http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=NEWS_RELEASES&p_id=17954>.
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