SOLUTION: Women in Jazz Research Paper

Citations
Each research paper must have a minimum of three outside sources and those
sources must be cited in your document.
Citations give credit to your sources and assure the accuracy of your facts. Citations
should be used in the following situations: when you quote exact words, when you
paraphrase ideas associated with a specific source, and when you use any idea, data
or method attributable to any source.
Research papers must include footnotes and a bibliography. We recommend using
Turabian or Chicago style for your citations. Below is a portion of the Turabian
Quick Guide for reference:
Turabian Quick Guide
Bibliography style is used widely in literature, history, and the arts. This style
presents bibliographic information in footnotes and a bibliography.
Below are some common examples of materials cited. Each example is given in
bibliography style (a note [N], followed by a bibliographic entry [B]).
Online sources that are analogous to print sources (such as articles published in
online journals, magazines, or newspapers) should be cited similarly to their print
counterparts but with the addition of a URL and an access date. For online or other
electronic sources that do not have a direct print counterpart (such as an
institutional Web site or a Weblog), give as much information as you can in addition
to the URL and access date. The following examples include some of the most
common types of electronic sources.
Book
One author
N:
1. Wendy Doniger, Splitting the Difference (Chicago: University of Chicago
Press, 1999), 65.
B:
Doniger, Wendy. Splitting the Difference. Chicago: University of Chicago Press,
1999.
Two authors
N:
6. Guy Cowlishaw and Robin Dunbar, Primate Conservation Biology (Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 2000), 104–7.
B:
Cowlishaw, Guy, and Robin Dunbar. Primate Conservation Biology. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 2000.
Four or more authors
N:
13. Edward O. Laumann et al., The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual
Practices in the United States (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994),
262.
B:
Laumann, Edward O., John H. Gagnon, Robert T. Michael, and Stuart Michaels.
The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.
Editor, translator, or compiler instead of author
N:
4. Richmond Lattimore, trans., The Iliad of Homer (Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 1951), 91–92.
B:
Lattimore, Richmond, trans. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 1951.
Editor, translator, or compiler in addition to author
N:
16. Yves Bonnefoy, New and Selected Poems, ed. John Naughton and Anthony
Rudolf (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995), 22.
B:
Bonnefoy, Yves. New and Selected Poems. Edited by John Naughton and
Anthony Rudolf. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.
Chapter or other part of a book
N:
5. Andrew Wiese, “‘The House I Live In’: Race, Class, and African American
Suburban Dreams in the Postwar United States,” in The New Suburban
History, ed. Kevin M. Kruse and Thomas J. Sugrue (Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 2006), 101–2.
B:
Wiese, Andrew. “‘The House I Live In’: Race, Class, and African American
Suburban Dreams in the Postwar United States.” In The New Suburban
History, edited by Kevin M. Kruse and Thomas J. Sugrue, 99–119. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 2006.
Chapter of an edited volume originally published elsewhere (as in primary
sources)
N:
8. Quintus Tullius Cicero. “Handbook on Canvassing for the Consulship,” in
Rome: Late Republic and Principate, ed. Walter Emil Kaegi Jr. and Peter White,
vol. 2 of University of Chicago Readings in Western Civilization, ed. John Boyer
and Julius Kirshner (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986), 35.
B:
Cicero, Quintus Tullius. “Handbook on Canvassing for the Consulship.” In
Rome: Late Republic and Principate, edited by Walter Emil Kaegi Jr. and Peter
White. Vol. 2 of University of Chicago Readings in Western Civilization, edited
by John Boyer and Julius Kirshner, 33–46. Chicago: University of Chicago
Press, 1986. Originally published in Evelyn S. Shuckburgh, trans., The Letters
of Cicero, vol. 1 (London: George Bell & Sons, 1908).
Preface, foreword, introduction, or similar part of a book
N:
17. James Rieger, introduction to Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus,
by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982),
xx–xxi.
B:
Rieger, James. Introduction to Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus, by
Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, xi–xxxvii. Chicago: University of Chicago Press,
1982.
Book published electronically
N:
2. Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner, eds., The Founders’ Constitution
(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), http://presspubs.uchicago.edu/founders/ (accessed June 27, 2006).
B:
Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1987. http://presspubs.uchicago.edu/founders/ (accessed June 27, 2006).
Journal article
Article in a print journal
N:
8. John Maynard Smith, “The Origin of Altruism,” Nature 393 (1998): 639.
B:
Smith, John Maynard. “The Origin of Altruism.” Nature 393 (1998): 639–40.
Article in an online journal
N:
33. Mark A. Hlatky et al., “Quality-of-Life and Depressive Symptoms in
Postmenopausal Women after Receiving Hormone Therapy: Results from the
Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) Trial,” Journal of
the American Medical Association 287, no. 5 (2002), http://jama.amaassn.org/issues/v287n5/rfull/joc10108.html#aainfo (accessed January 7,
2004).
B:
Hlatky, Mark A., Derek Boothroyd, Eric Vittinghoff, Penny Sharp, and Mary A.
Whooley. “Quality-of-Life and Depressive Symptoms in Postmenopausal
Women after Receiving Hormone Therapy: Results from the Heart and
Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) Trial.” Journal of the
American Medical Association 287, no. 5 (February 6, 2002),
http://jama.ama-assn.org/issues/v287n5/rfull/joc10108.html#aainfo
(accessed January 7, 2004).
Popular magazine article
N:
29. Steve Martin, “Sports-Interview Shocker,” New Yorker, May 6, 2002, 84.
B:
Martin, Steve. “Sports-Interview Shocker.” New Yorker, May 6, 2002.
Newspaper article
Newspaper articles may be cited in running text (“As William Niederkorn noted in a
New York Times article on June 20, 2002, . . . ”) instead of in a note or a parenthetical
citation, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography or reference list as
well. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations.
N:
10. William S. Niederkorn, “A Scholar Recants on His ‘Shakespeare’
Discovery,” New York Times, June 20, 2002, Arts section, Midwest edition.
B:
Niederkorn, William S. “A Scholar Recants on His ‘Shakespeare’ Discovery.”
New York Times, June 20, 2002, Arts section, Midwest edition.
Book review
N:
1. James Gorman, “Endangered Species,” review of The Last American Man, by
Elizabeth Gilbert, New York Times Book Review, June 2, 2002, 16.
B:
Gorman, James. “Endangered Species.” Review of The Last American Man, by
Elizabeth Gilbert. New York Times Book Review, June 2, 2002.
Thesis or dissertation
N:
22. M. Amundin, “Click Repetition Rate Patterns in Communicative Sounds
from the Harbour Porpoise, Phocoena phocoena” (PhD diss., Stockholm
University, 1991), 22–29, 35.
B:
Amundin, M. “Click Repetition Rate Patterns in Communicative Sounds from
the Harbour Porpoise, Phocoena phocoena.” PhD diss., Stockholm University,
1991.
Paper presented at a meeting or conference
N:
13. Brian Doyle, “Howling Like Dogs: Metaphorical Language in Psalm 59”
(paper presented at the annual international meeting for the Society of
Biblical Literature, Berlin, Germany, June 19–22, 2002).
B:
Doyle, Brian. “Howling Like Dogs: Metaphorical Language in Psalm 59.” Paper
presented at the annual international meeting for the Society of Biblical
Literature, Berlin, Germany, June 19–22, 2002.
Web site
Web sites may be cited in running text (“On its Web site, the Evanston Public Library
Board of Trustees states . . .”) instead of in a parenthetical citation, and they are
commonly omitted from a bibliography or reference list as well. The following
examples show the more formal versions of the citations.
N:
11. Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees, “Evanston Public Library
Strategic Plan, 2000–2010: A Decade of Outreach,” Evanston Public Library,
http://www.epl.org/library/strategic-plan-00.html (accessed June 1, 2005).
B:
Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees. “Evanston Public Library
Strategic Plan, 2000–2010: A Decade of Outreach.” Evanston Public Library.
http://www.epl.org/library/strategic-plan-00.html (accessed June 1, 2005).
Weblog entry or comment
Weblog entries or comments may be cited in running text (“In a comment posted to
the Becker-Posner Blog on March 6, 2006, Peter Pearson noted . . .”) instead of in a
note or a parenthetical citation, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography
or reference list as well. The following examples show the more formal versions of
the citations.
N:
8. Peter Pearson, comment on “The New American Dilemma: Illegal
Immigration,” The Becker-Posner Blog, comment posted March 6, 2006,
http://www.becker-posner-
B:
blog.com/archives/2006/03/the_new_america.html#c080052 (accessed
March 28, 2006).
Becker-Posner Blog, The. http://www.becker-posner-blog.com/ (accessed
March 28, 2006).
E-mail message
E-mail messages may be cited in running text (“In an e-mail message to the author
on October 31, 2005, John Doe revealed . . .”) instead of in a note or a parenthetical
citation, and they are rarely listed in a bibliography or reference list. The following
example shows the more formal version of a note.
N:
2. John Doe, e-mail message to author, October 31, 2005.
Item in online database
Journal articles published in online databases should be cited as shown above,
under “Article in an online journal.”
N:
7. Pliny the Elder, The Natural History, ed. John Bostock and H. T. Riley, in the
Perseus Digital Library, http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgibin/ptext?lookup=Plin.+Nat.+1.dedication (accessed November 17, 2005).
B:
Perseus Digital Library. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/ (accessed November
17, 2005).
http://www.press.uchicago.edu/books/turabian/turabian_citationguide.html/
Possible Topics for Paper #1 (Summer 18)
A) Name a number of important women who made significant contributions to
jazz before 1945. Indicate their specialties (trumpeter, vocalist, bandleader,
composer, etc.) and the bands and/or musicians with whom they were
associated. Also, discuss the obstacles women had to overcome to become part
of the jazz world and how sexism impacted jazz at the time. Use specific
examples.
B) Discuss the role jazz played in the cultural activities associated with the Harlem
Renaissance of the 1920s. Use specific examples of major jazz figures of this
period. Use specific examples of stylistic developments that occurred during this
time. What was the role of segregation in Harlem and other Northern cities?

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