SOLUTION: Grand Canyon University Urban Sprawl Presentation

Course Code
HIS-450

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Class Code
HIS-450-O500
Criteria
Content
Percentage
100.0%
Create a PowerPoint of 8-10 slides that
summarizes your research. Explain why the topic
is important to you.
25.0%
Explain the project’s thesis and main points as
clearly and forcefully as possible in a more
concise format than in the paper. Use the slide
notes section to explain the points you are
making. (4.5) and (8.5) Explain historical
concepts to others through presentation.
50.0%
Documenting Sources (in-text citations for
paraphrasing and direct quotes, end note slide
listing and formatting, as appropriate to
assignment and style)
10.0%
Layout
5.0%
Language Use and Audience Awareness (includes
sentence construction, word choice, etc.)
5.0%
Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling,
punctuation, grammar, language use)
5.0%
Total Weightage
100%
Assignment Title
Benchmark Assignment: Presentation of Project
Unsatisfactory (0.00%)
Presentation does not explain why the topic is important to
the author.
Presentation does not explain the project’s thesis and main
points clearly, forcefully or concisely.
Contains no title slide, no end note slide, and no correctly
cited references within the body of the presentation.
The layout is cluttered, confusing, and does not use spacing,
headings, and subheadings to enhance the readability. The
text is extremely difficult to read with long blocks of text,
small point size for fonts, and inappropriate contrasting
colors. Poor use of headings, subheadings, indentations, or
bold formatting is evident.
Inappropriate word choice and lack of variety in language use
are evident. Writer appears to be unaware of audience. Use
of primer prose indicates writer either does not apply figures
of speech or uses them inappropriately.
Slide errors are pervasive enough that they impede
communication of meaning.
Total Points
75.0
Less than Satisfactory (65.00%)
Presentation contains less than 8 slides; explains why the
topic is important to the author. Key elements are skimmed
over and explanations are lacking depth of any kind.
Presentation explains the project’s thesis and main points
clearly, forcefully and concisely. Key elements are skimmed
over and explanations are lacking depth of any kind. Slide
notes are used inconsistently.
Title slide is incomplete or inaccurate. End note slide includes
sources, but many citation errors. Citations are included
within the body of the presentation but with many errors.
The layout shows some structure, but appears cluttered and
busy or distracting with large gaps of white space or a
distracting background. Overall readability is difficult due to
lengthy paragraphs, too many different fonts, dark or busy
background, overuse of bold, or lack of appropriate
indentations of text.
Some distracting inconsistencies in language choice (register)
and/or word choice are present. The writer exhibits some
lack of control in using figures of speech appropriately.
Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the
reader.
Satisfactory (75.00%)
Presentation contains 8-10 slides; explains why the topic is
important to the author with some level of depth but lacks
some evidence to support claims. Demonstrates a basic
understanding of the topic.
Presentation explains the project’s thesis and main points
clearly, forcefully and concisely with some level of depth but
lacks some evidence to support claims. Demonstrates a basic
understanding of the topic. Slide notes are used to explain
points.
Title slide has minor errors. End note slide includes sources,
but they are not consistently cited correctly. Citations are
included within the body of the presentation but with some
errors.
The layout uses horizontal and vertical white space
appropriately. Sometimes the fonts are easy to read, but in a
few places the use of fonts, italics, bold, long paragraphs,
color, or busy background detracts and does not enhance
readability.
Language is appropriate to the targeted audience for the
most part.
Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but are not
overly distracting to the reader.
Good (85.00%)
Presentation contains 8-10 slides; explains why the topic is
important to the author with mostly accurate details and
evidence; explanation provides analysis with some evidence
to support claims.
Presentation explains the project’s thesis and main points
clearly, forcefully and concisely with mostly accurate details
and evidence; explanation provides analysis with some
evidence to support claims. Slide notes are used to explain
points.
Title slide is complete. End note slide includes correctly cited
sources with minimal errors. Correct citations are included
within the body of the presentation.
The layout background and text complement each other and
enable the content to be easily read. The fonts are easy to
read and point size varies appropriately for headings and text.
The writer is clearly aware of audience, uses a variety of
appropriate vocabulary for the targeted audience, and uses
figures of speech to communicate clearly.
Slides are largely free of mechanical errors, although a few
may be present.
Excellent (100.00%)
Presentation contains 8-10 slides; explains why the topic is
important to the author with quality details and factual
evidence; explanation is insightful with relevant evidence to
support claims. Demonstrates an exceptional understanding
of topic.
Presentation explains the project’s thesis and main points
clearly, forcefully and concisely with quality details and
factual evidence; explanation is insightful with relevant
evidence to support claims. Demonstrates an exceptional
understanding of topic. Slide notes are used to explain points.
Title slide is complete. End note slide includes correctly cited
sources. Correct citations are included within the body of the
presentation.
The layout is visually pleasing and contributes to the overall
message with appropriate use of headings, subheadings, and
white space. Text is appropriate in length for the target
audience and to the point. The background and colors
enhance the readability of the text.
The writer uses a variety of sentence constructions, figures of
speech, and word choice in distinctive and creative ways that
are appropriate to purpose, discipline, and scope.
Writer is clearly in control of standard, written academic
English.
Comments
Points Earned
Benchmark Assignment:
Presentation of Project
Create a PowerPoint presentation of 8-10 slides that summarizes your research; also
include a title and end note slide. The presentation should include the following:
1.
2.
3.
Explain why the topic you chose is of interest to you.
Explain the project’s thesis and main points as clearly and forcefully as possible in
a more a concise format than in the paper. Use the slide notes section to explain
the points you are making.
Source documentation must still be included in this format (sources may be cited
in text with superscript numbers corresponding with numbered notes on the end
note slide.)
Use only sources found at the GCU Library or those provided in Course and/or Topic
Materials.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the
assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
Turabian format is required for essays only. Solid academic writing is always
expected.
For all assignment delivery options, documentation of sources should be presented
using Turabian formatting guidelines, which can be found in the Turabian Style Guide,
located in the Student Success Center.
You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the directions in
the Student Success Center.
This Benchmark Assignment assesses the following History Program Competencies:
For the BA History and BA Public History programs:
4.5: Explain historical concepts to others through presentation.
For the BA History for Secondary Education program:
8.5: Explain historical concepts to others through presentation.
1
Urban Sprawl
Name
Institutional Affiliation
Course Name
Tutor’s Name
Date
2
Introduction
Urban sprawl’s characteristics include urban decentralization, which is a wide debated
area among the general public, scholars, and urban planners. The term is used by regular
Americans to refer to the factor they believe is the cause of undesirable results happening in
metropolitan areas. This includes congestion, unavailability of functional open space, pollution,
farmland loss, economic segregation, and increased mobility with automobiles, among other
issues.1 Urban sprawl labels the unrestricted grown in various urban areas of commercial
development, roads, and housing under the expense of the land and with little effort in urban
planning. In the US, urban sprawl happened between 1920 and 2012, and since it started, it has
had direct adverse effects on individuals living in cities in that the cost of living has increased.
The primary objective of this research paper is to analyze urban sprawl and its effect on the
United States. Some key components of this research will highlight the rate of sprawl over the
history and the effects accompanied by urban sprawl.
Research questions
The main research question being answered is, what have been the impacts of urban
sprawl on the US? Other questions include, what are the factors that caused urban sprawl? What
are the counter strategies to the adverse effects of urban sprawl? These questions will be
answered through a review of secondary sources.
1
Wassmer, R. W. (2008). Causes of urban sprawl in the United States: auto reliance as compared to
natural evolution, flight from blight, and local revenue reliance. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management: The
Journal of the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management, 27(3), 536-555.
3
Thesis Statement
People have been caused to sprawl out and venture further out from urban areas, which
has led to urban sprawl, which has led to adverse, social, economic, and environmental
consequences. It is essential to counter the effects of urban sprawl through technological
innovations and improved planning strategies.
Purpose of the Research
The primary objective of this paper is to recognize the causes of urban sprawl from a
historical and societal perspective, evaluate the impacts of city sprawl in the US, and then
examine counter-strategies to the effects.
Methodology
This research will analyze secondary sources dealing with urban sprawl to support the
main claim.
Findings and Discussion
Recognizing the Causes of Urban Sprawl
Sprawl has characteristics different from other types of urban growth, and various
professions have distinct viewpoints about the causes of urban sprawl. Lopez reviews changes in
urban sprawl in the US from 1970 to 2010 and discovers that some cities continue to experience
a high rate of sprawl increase. History of the United States has shown that sprawl was rapidly
increasing in the nineteenth century, which was characterized by industrialization and the gilded
4
age.2 Historical researches from different individuals reveal different causes of urban sprawl. For
example, the gilded age was characterized by economic growth, which resulted in an increase of
income for various individuals, which has been identified by the various studies as a cause of
urban sprawl. It is essential to review how various authors describe the causes of urban sprawl.
Fansler and Brucker researched forty US urbanized areas by studying factors like
commuting expenditure, agricultural land price, and income to show that sprawl is an outcome
that has been experienced over time. According to Mills and Mieczkowski, urban sprawl is a
result of population and income growth, differences in user choice and land competition, and
improvements in the transport system. Other recognized indicators of urban sprawl include
educational centers, high taxation, and damaged infrastructure. Another notation of what may
lead to higher urban decentralization is based on what is known as “fiscalization of land use.”
Bruckner suggested that an increase in population and income and a decrease in commuting costs
lead to sprawl. From a historical perspective increase in income in the United States occurred in
the gilded age, an era late in the nineteenth century, and was characterized by rapid economic
growth. An increase in population emerges the need for space. From another point of view,
individuals tend to turn to bigger buildings through income growth, and as a result,
infrastructures and highways are built. Land value is another cause mention in various studies.
According to Ewing, four elements lead to urban sprawl, and they include technological
innovations, consumer preference, quasi-public goods, and public and subsidies.
2
Lopez, R. (2014). Urban sprawl in the United States: 1970-2010. Cities and the Environment (CATE), 7(1),
7.
5
In summary of various studies, variables that cause urban sprawl include, income and
population growth, access to desirable housing, and low price land. There are also various
advantages like low commuting prices, public services, subsidies, suburbs new job centers, and
commuting network promotion.3 These factors promote utilities and motivate individuals to
urban sprawl. Discussing how these factors lead to urban sprawl will assist in analyzing the
effects of urban sprawl.
It is important to explain how some of these factors lead to urban sprawl. Low land rates
and housing in outer suburbs of the towns have made people want to sprawl out and venture
further out, which has led to urban sprawl. High income for people means that individuals can
afford to travel and commute long distances to go to work and back home, and this has increased
the number of people who have to settle on outer parts of the city. Cities normally have high tax
rates, and people have known that they can avoid these taxes by staying in the outer suburbs
since the taxes are lower in these areas. To explain how population growth relates to urban
sprawl, as the number of individuals increases beyond capacity, local communities continue to
spread farther from city centers. The other factor is consumer preference, and high-income
groups have greater preferences in terms of housing, where they desire bigger homes with more
bedrooms and such features. This option may not be available in cities where there is congestion;
hence individuals end up looking for less dense resident areas where they can build home per
their preference. Improved infrastructure in outer parts of the cities like roads and electricity has
3
Wassmer, R. W. (2008). Causes of urban sprawl in the United States: auto reliance as compared to
natural evolution, flight from blight, and local revenue reliance. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management: The
Journal of the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management, 27(3), 536-555.
6
also motivated people not to rely on what the congested cities have to offer. Understating and
recognizing these causes of urban sprawl is essential when reviewing the effects of urban sprawl.
Impacts of Urban Sprawl
A variety of literature has identified various economic and social consequences involved
with urban sprawl. There are also various environmental effects linked to urban sprawl. The
effects fall on both the negative and benefits side. Perhaps the most adverse effects of urban
sprawl are environmental problems. The outward expansion of metropolitan areas in the US,
specifically considering the automobile-dependent lifestyle, has increased pollutions of air a
range of various diseases like lung cancer, heart issues, and asthma. The quality of water has
eroded over history as development has continued to increase pollution, poisoning lakes, rivers,
and other water bodies. From a more specific perspective, over-reliance on automobiles has
caused a reduction in water and air quality and also increased depletion in fossil fuels. In the US,
the number of automobiles has considerably outpaced the growth in population, and those who
own these motor vehicles are driving longer distances. The land consumption rate is increasing
as people shift from urban areas to suburban fringes. For instance, from 1950 to 1995, the
Chicago population increased by forty-eight percent, while coverage of the land increased by one
hundred and sixty-five percent. Similarly, southeast of Boston, marked as a sprawling area, in the
past four decades, more land has been developed compared to the past three centuries.4
Consumption of more land means that more forest areas are being inhabited, explaining why
4
Brody, S. (2013). The characteristics, causes, and consequences of sprawling development patterns in the
United States. Nature Education Knowledge, 4(5), 2.
7
there is an increase in problems like global warming and other environmental problems. South
Florida is another area that can be identified with sprawling that leads to adverse effects on the
environment. It was reported that out of thirteen huge US market offices, South Florida is
characterized by a low percentage of office occupation in major downtown. It was identified in
South Florida that only thirteen percent of its office space is found in its central districts, in
comparison with almost thirty percent of all thirteen markets. Dividing huge natural areas into
small areas can prohibit the movement of wildlife in the landscape. Leapfrog patterns in
development subdivide natural landscape through ensuring areas of open land interconnected
with built-up places. Fences, roadways, among other people-defined edges, are identified as
barriers to various species in the environment.5 The pattern of consumption has caused an
increase in the use of energy, cutting of trees, damage to the ozone layer hence contributing to
global warming. As commercial and residential development occurs, farms and forestlands
continue to be consumed. The adverse effects of urban sprawl on the environment should be
counterbalanced with the idea that sprawling provides and enables better housing and a better
quality of life.
An increase in fiscal differences between communities is another consequence of urban
sprawl. The fiscal differences augment aspects of inequality in the United States. Outlying high
wealthy classes experience large taxation, and fewer social services require to finance; the gap in
the quality of services increases. Due to the reliance on taxation to fund public schools, equal
opportunities in education has become a problem. As various industries seek out outlying areas,
relocation of jobs exacerbates suburban and urban economic differences. The increasing
5
Brody, S. (2013). The characteristics, causes, and consequences of sprawling development patterns in the
United States. Nature Education Knowledge, 4(5), 2.
8
concentration of hyper segregation and poverty of urban classes are the consequences of these
trends. These disparities and developments are then linked with drug use, racial issues, crime
rates, and other social problems. Jargowsky explains that major urban areas like New York, Los
Angeles, Miami, and San Francisco integrate low-income individuals into the economy. Waves
of immigrants from various places have come through inner-city neighborhoods involved with
ethnic immigration.6 The main idea is that due to urban sprawl, urban areas have become
concentration areas for poor people and neighborhoods and have enabled them to be assimilated
into the country’s economy. Historically, the mobility of economically disadvantaged people into
urban areas, looking to enter the American mainstream, caused an increase in urban poverty.
By 1970, disparity among different dynamics, the poor, and the rich began to emerge.
The white, followed by the black middle class, started to relocate away from inner cities to
suburban destinations. The migration of non-poor away from the central urban areas caused a
migration of the less advant …
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